Types of Breast Cancer Surgery

In this article, Dr.Garvi Chitkara will be talking about some types of breast cancer surgery. Dr. Garvit Chitkara is one of the best breast cancer surgeons in Mumbai, India with an accomplished expertise in breast cancer surgery and oncoplastic breast surgery. With more than 20 years of a decade of experience Dr Garvit Chitkara has 14+ years of experience as a doctor and has been practicing Breast Surgical oncology for a decade. After getting trained in breast oncology from Tata Memorial hospital he practiced as Consultant Breast surgeon at TMH and has also trained many students. He has treated thousands of patients with complex cases offering them evidence based, personalized treatment which gives them the confidence to continue their lives as normally as possible post their cancer treatment.

1. Mastectomy

The most common procedure for breast cancer is a mastectomy, or also called breast removal. This is due to the fact that mastectomy is used to treat both late-stage as well as early-stage breast malignancies. Furthermore, some patients who are at an increased risk of getting breast cancer prefer prophylactic mastectomy as a precautionary step, says Dr Garvit Chitkara, one of the best breast cancer surgeon in Mumbai
The following are examples of mastectomy surgeries
  1. A total mastectomy: Involves removing your whole breast while leaving your chest muscle intact.
  2. Double mastectomy: This might be required if cancer has progressed to both of the breasts, or either it could be used as a prophylactic step.
  3. Skin-sparing or nipple-sparing mastectomy: This type of mastectomy removes all of the breast tissue while leaving your skin and, if possible, your nipple intact for reconstruction.
  4. Modified mastectomy: Breast tissue and underarm lymph nodes are removed during a modified radical mastectomy. Breast cancer frequently spreads to the lymph nodes first.
  5. Radical mastectomy: Chest muscles, underarm lymph nodes and breast are all removed during a radical mastectomy. This is a specific operation that is only required if the breast cancer has spread to your chest muscles.

2. Lumpectomy

Lumpectomy, which is also known as breast-conservation surgery, is a procedure that eliminates only a portion of the breast tissue. This is a different treatment option for early-stage breast cancer. You can also have surgery merely to remove a lump(tumor itself) — if the tumor is tiny and hasn’t spread yet, saya Dr Garvit Chitkara, one of the best breast cancer surgeons in Mumbai. A portion of the surrounding skin is also removed during a lumpectomy to ensure that no cancer cells remain in your breast. The advantage of a lumpectomy is that you can keep the majority of your breast. However, your healthcare professional would most likely consider radiation therapy following the surgery to keep breast cancer from returning. Having a total mastectomy rather than radiation therapy is a common technique to prevent it. However, lumpectomy plus radiation therapy has been demonstrated to be as successful as total mastectomy in addressing early-stage breast cancer in patients who have the option. The following are examples of lumpectomy procedures:
  1. Excisional biopsy procedure: This is a process for removing a tumor in order to do a biopsy. A laboratory examination of the tumor can help establish whether it is cancerous (malignant).
  2. Wide local excision procedure: A malignant tumor and a margin of tissue around it are removed during a wide local excision. After that, the marginal tissue will be examined to ensure it is cancer-free.
  3. Quadrantectomy procedure: A quadrantectomy is a type of segmental mastectomy in which a quarter of your breast is removed, including the duct-lobular system. When the tumor has spread into the ducts, this treatment is recommended.
  4. Re-excision lumpectomy procedure: A procedure that is performed after the tumor and its margin of tissue have been removed. If cancer cells are found in the marginal tissue, your surgeon will reopen the surgical site and remove an additional margin of tissue until the tissue is cancer-free.

3. Lymph node investigation

Cancer frequently spreads through your lymph system first . cancer in the lymph nodes is a symptom that it has moved beyond your breast. One or more lymph nodes beneath your arm near to your damaged breast may be removed and analysed by your surgeon to find out. This is the most likely location for breast cancer cells to drain, saya Dr Garvit Chitkara, one of the best breast cancer surgeons in Mumbai.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy: This is a test that determines whether cancer has spread into your lymph system. Because it’s the first node to filter fluid draining out from the afflicted breast, the sentinel lymph node is a reliable indicator. During the procedure to remove the primary tumor from your breast, and sometimes before, your surgeon will do a sentinel node biopsy. The sentinel node will be removed and analyzed for cancer cells.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection: If the sentinel node biopsy reveals cancer, or if your doctor has cause to assume you have widespread cancer in your lymph nodes, doctors may wish to remove a greater portion of your lymph nodes for analysis. Your surgeon will remove a pad of fatty tissue including a group of axillary lymph nodes during an axillary lymph node dissection (the lymph nodes under your arm). They’ll look for symptoms of malignancy in the tissue with great care.

3. Reconstructive surgery

Whether you’re having some or all of your breasts removed to treat breast cancer, reconstructive surgery to reconstruct your breast form may be an option. Plastic surgical techniques can often be used to reconstruct the breast following a lumpectomy or mastectomy. They can also do a separate surgery after you’ve finished radiation or chemotherapy and your tissues have had time to heal. If you have instant or postponed reconstruction surgery, you will require a follow-up procedure to perfect your results. Follow-up operations may include adjusting the size ratio between your breasts or adding a reconstructed nipple, for example. Breast reconstruction can be done in stages and can incorporate a variety of techniques. Based upon your condition and preferences, you and your surgeon will choose the best procedures and timing.
  1. Implant reconstruction: A breast implant restores the form and volume of your breast by replacing tissue that was removed. The prosthesis is a silicone shell with a saline or silicone gel filling. The surgeon covers it with your skin — either your natural breast skin or a skin graft from some other part of your body — and inserts it over or under your muscle.
  2. Flap reconstruction: To reconstruct your breast, this method uses tissue from another portion of your body. Skin, fat, and even muscle from your belly button or buttocks resembles breast tissue in appearance and feel. For more realistic results, surgeons sometimes combine flap and implant surgery.
Nipple reconstruction: If you underwent a nipple-saving mastectomy or lumpectomy, your doctor kept your nipple to utilize in your breast reconstruction. They can create a new nipple using a skin graft extracted from some other part of the body if they weren’t able to save your old one. This could be done after breast reconstruction as a follow-up procedure
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